Wednesday, May 29, 2013

Hyperglycemia (Diabetes Mellitus) - High Blood Sugar in Dogs

Hyperglycemia - commonly known as diabetes mellitus is a common hormonal disorder in canines and the condition often exhibits a wide range of symptoms. All you need to know is what to keep your eye on. Alike humans hyperglycemia in dogs are of two type - Type I (dependent on the level of insulin... occurs when the body becomes unabile to produce enough insulin or any insulin at all) and Type II (non-insulin dependent... occurs when the body fails to respond to insulin). However, canines mostly are diagnosed with diabetes mellitus Type I.

Healthy dogs normally have the blood glucose levels ranging between 75 to 120 mg per deciliter of blood. With 80 mg per deciliter or lower a dog is considered to have developed hypoglycemia and with the blood glucose level coming down to 60 mg per deciliter of blood the subject may go into coma or even death. 

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus in Dogs 

There are multiple causes for this. While in many dogs, DM may be acquired through genetic transmission of the condition there are other reasons too.

Pancreatic Problem
In most cases pancreatic diseases like Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, pancreatitis etc. are the major cause developing blod sugar problem in dogs. This is because with any pancreatic disease the pancreas becomes inefficient of producing correct level of insulin. Deficiency of insulin in the dog's blood leads to rise in blood sugar level - Hyperglycemia.

Infection
Body infection - especially in teeth, Kidney or urinary tract in worst situation may also lead to rise in blood suggar level in blood.

Age
Old age is another reason a dog can develop hyperglycemia. 5 years to 7 years of age are crucial to keep an eye on your dog's blood glocose level.

Gender
Female dogs have been noticed to have developed diabetes mellitus more than males. High progesterone levels in female dogs enhances the risk of developing hyperglycemia.

Food
Giving nutritional supplements for growth that contains high glocose level may expose your dog to the risk of developing diabetes mellitus.

Physiological and other Conditions
Obese dogs are more prone to develop Hyperglycemia. Insifficient urination leads, high stress situations, over exertion, over excitement contribute immensely to the development of high blood sugar level in dogs.

Major Clinical Symptoms
Clinical symptoms actually depend largely on the severity of underlying condition in the dog. Not always that a dog may exhibit strong symptoms of hyperglycemia. However the most common and noticeable symptoms are:

Polydipsia - Increased thirst and water intake
Polyuria - Increased urination
Excessive hunger and over eating tendency
Obesity
Bloodshot eyes (caused by inflamed blood vessels)
Wounds won't heal fast
Frequent fungal and bacterial infections
Depression

Other symptoms that may be noticed in the long run are:

Gradual Weight loss
Cataract
Enlarged liver
Damage nerve in legs
Dehydration
Tissue damage in worst situations

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