Thursday, January 24, 2019

Normal Blood Chemistry & Hematology Values In Dogs

Blood Chemistry and Hematology Values In Dogs In Normal And Healthy State

In most cases the reference values in veterinary species are different from those in humans. However, depending on the species some values are almost same or close to each other, while some are hugely different. For example, in canines the normal reference value for amylase can be as high as 1,125 U/L, which is much higher than that in humans.

Blood is certainly one of the most important mediums in assessing a dog's state of health. This information is strictly for references and should be treated as academic purpose only. It is in no way medical advice, nor does it purport to be medical advice.

Calculation of reference values should include the mean and standard deviation (SD), and are usually the mean value ±1.96 SD to ±2.0 SD, or 95% of the population in a given environmental condition. The values may show deviation based on the food habits and other environmental condition. Climatic anomaly affects these values, and in turn, the immune competence of the dog.

Normal Blood Chemistry Values in Dogs

Glucose (GLU): 67 - 125 mg/dL
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): 10 - 84 U/L
Alkaline Phosphatase (ALKP): 20-200
Total Bilirubin (TBILI): 0.04 - 0.40 mg/dL
Total Protein (TP): 5.2 - 7.8 gm/dL
Globulin (GLOB): 0.9 - 4.0
Urea Nitrogen (BUN): 9 - 27 mg/dL
Phosphorus (PHOS): 2.6 - 6.8 mg/dL
Creatinine (CREA): 0.4 - 1.4
Amylase (AMYL): 200 - 1290
Calcium (CA): 9.5 - 12.0
Sodium (Na): 140 - 153 mmol/L
Chloride (CI): 106 - 118 mmol/L
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH): 10 - 273 U/L
Magnesium: 1.5 - 2.7 mg/dL
Lipase (LIP): 200 - 700 U/L
Creatine phosphokinase (CPK): 20 - 200
Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT): 1.2
Albumin (ALB): 2.5- 4.3
Cholesterol (CHOL): 110- 314
Triglycerides: 20 - 200
Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH): 30-190
Thyroxine (T4): 1.0 - 4.7 ug/dL

Normal Hematology Values in Dogs

Red Blood Cell Count (RBC): 5.9 - 8.5 X 100,000/L
White Blood Cell Count (WBC): 6.0 - 17 x 1000/L
Mean Corpustular Hemaglobin (MCH): 19.5 - 25.5 pg
Red Cell Distribution Width (RDW): 14 - 19 percent
Hematocrit (HCT): 37 - 55 percent
Hemoglobin (HgB or Hb) g/L: 120-180
Reticulocytes: 0-1.5%
Segs x1000/ul: 3.6-11.5
Bands x1000/ul: 0.0-0.3
Lymphocytes x1000/ul: 1.0-4.8
Monocytes x1000/ul: 0.15-1.35
Eosinophils x1000/ul: 0.01-1.25
Platelets x 100000/ul (PLT): 2-9

Please note: The blood chemistry and hematology values given above are only for dogs and is just a reference of a normal range during normal health, normal state of mind and in resting condition. Please be informed that the hematology and serum chemistry values may vary in semi-wild or stray dogs. In a study dog of different ages and different body conditions have shown difference in these values. Even these values have been noticed to be different depending on gender and reproductive stages and different social structure.

In the study differences were noticed for:

1. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate between sexes.
2. Total red blood cell count among different age groups
3. Total red blood cell count, Mean corpuscular volume and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin among different body conditions
4. Total red blood cell count, Mean corpuscular volume and Mean corpuscular hemoglobin among pregnant and non-pregnant females

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Friday, August 11, 2017

Behavioral Change & Canine Health Concern

Any change in the behaviors of your dogs give an indication of change in his mental state, which can be the cause of deterioration in his internal health condition that may not be noticed apparently always. For example if Reva doesn’t exhibit enthusiasm while meeting, she might have digestive issues for some reason. Underlying factors such as pain, anemia, gastrointestinal problems, etc. that are not apparent may drop your dog’s energy level. Any subtle changes in your dog’s behavior should be addressed seriously. In case you notice any subtle changes in the behavior, it is probably the time call your vet or proper medical diagnosis. It is, however, highly advised to treat a condition than to wait for it to become a big health concern.

Here are certain behavior factors that should be worth noticing and spared thought over:

1. Reva – who has been a great foodie, suddenly starts refusing food: Consult a vet immediately. She might have digestive or gastrointestinal problems which need to be address without delay. Heavy infestation of internal parasite may discourage you dog to eat. Fever, pain, or any other health issues can also be the causes for your dog to refuse his most favorite food.

2. If your dog was accident free indoor, and now have started having accidents even though there haven’t been any change in the lifestyle and households and the dog had free access to the potty zone, gives an indication that he/she is having internal health problem. Immediately see a vet.

3. A play-friendly dog suddenly refusing to go out for a play or a walk is an indication of health issues. It is probably the time to call a vet.

4. A properly socialized dog that has been very friendly to people suddenly starts avoiding people and hiding away, gives an indication of sickness.

5. A friendly and cool dog who starts exhibiting aggression towards his/her pack members – family gives an indication of sickness

6. A friendly and socialized dog suddenly starts staying clear of own ones’ touches indicates illness, even though he/she is not showing aggression.

7. Not drinking water as he/she used to drink or over drinking are both indications of serious illness. Adult or aged females showing too much thirst and tends to drink heavily indicate serious health issues like pyometra.

8. Have your dog suddenly started showing tendencies of licking walls and floors? See a vet

9. Do you notice any difference in his or her tail wagging movement? Even though he is still as happy as he used to be a difference in the movement of tail indicates underlying health issues.

10. Have you start noticing your dog staying aloof most often in a day? See a vet as soon as possible.

11. If a dog who used to enjoy going up and down the stairs several times in a day suddenly starts refusing it should be bought to the vet’s immediate notice, even though he/she is not having problem in normal walking activities.

12. Is chewing toys the favorite pastime for Rex. If he is loath to do that suddenly today, keep an eye on him for a day or two. If he still showing no interest in his chewing toys, it is probably the time to see your vet.

Any change in behavior in your dog – however small or minor it is, gives an indication of internal health problem, which should be addressed without delay. Behavioral changes in your dog are considered as the most important information that your vet will be seeking for. Correctly explaining your dog’s behavioral changes (minor and/or major) to the vet will help him diagnose the health issues correctly.

Keeping an eye on your dog’s behavior is what is expected from a responsible owner. It is important NOT to overlook any changes – even the most minor ones until it breaks your nerves.

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Monday, August 7, 2017

Your Mistakes in Dog Bite Incidences

Dogs have always been the most precious friends of humans. A study has shown that world’s top 10 countries having most pet dog population is cumulatively over 172509000 dogs. At the same time another study on dog bite carried out by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has shown that around 4.7 million people are bitten by dogs each year, followed by an incredible volume of 800,000 injuries that demand serious medical attention. Another stat offered by the Insurance Information Institute (I.I.I.), shows that dog bite claims that cost the insurance industry during 2005 was $317 million, while this number has risen to $365.2 million during 2007, which is one of the most important data that proves that dog bite cases are on a rapid rise. Many insurers have increased the premium values and in some cases they have even excluded few canine breeds like Rottweilers, German Shepherds and Pit Bull Terriers from insurance coverage.

Before you blame specific dog breeds, it is important to understand that owners are actually liable for their dogs’ unnatural behavior. It is important to understand the owners’ mistakes related to the dog bite incidences. Evaluation is very important. Most dog bite problems can be resolved by the way of responsible ownership and carrying out safe behavior with dogs.

1st Mistake – Not Determining a Dog’s Propensity: This is a big mistake that most owners and handlers commit. It is important to determine the dog’s behavioral pattern and the owner can be the best person to do this. It is important to evaluate whether a dog is vicious by nature and if he is, then it is important to evaluate the reasons behind his aggressive behavior. Problems should be resolved at the root.

2nd Mistake – Not Socializing a Dog: Dog is a social animal. He should carry himself in a friendly way until he is being threatened. It is important to socialize a dog to different situations, sounds and humans. Lack of socialization can be a reason of your dog becoming fearful, which consequently leads to developing biting tendencies.

3rd Mistake – Differentiation: Remember any breed – Chihuahua to Irish Wolf Hound any dog can bite. documentation about this was found in county and city bite statistics as and national research studies. It is unwise to make a list of breeds that bites. As soon as you develop a develop a mindset against a specific breed, often times you develop phobia in the particular breed(s), and you start behaving weird when you are around those breed of dogs. This can enhance the chance of you being bitten. It is hence suggested to behave normally around the dogs (irrespective of breed).

4th Mistake – Breed Specific Law: With full honor for the BSL in certain places in the US, I would rather state that the law has been enforced keeping in mind the specific breed. Rather it should have been developed based on the owners’ and handlers’ treatment with the dog. BSL should directly target people who deliberately want to make their dogs aggressive and develop biting tendencies through unethical training. BSL somehow is helping develop a fear in people’s mind towards certain breed. this fear makes them behave abnormally and the 3rd Mistake repeats its cycle.

5th Mistake – Unethical Breeding: Wrong breeding tactics is the reason for developing biting tendencies in dogs. Unscientific breeding (outcrossing, line breeding and in-breeding) often times delivers shy progenitors. Backyard breeding should be banned. Act of breeding animals should be carried keeping the Science of Breeding in mind. Genes has got its role to play. Here's the Role of Gene in The Dog's Character.

6th Mistake – Not Understanding a Breed: It is important to understand the specific traits of the breed you are planning to own. Owners should understand whether a breed is for him/her. Not all breeds are or all. If you are an apartment dweller, a GSD or a Dane may not be the right choice for you. Limited movement and exercise can make make certain breed – German Shepherd dog frustrated and eventually develops aggressiveness.

Over all these... Do not commit the same mistakes as I did.

Do not keep your dog confined. Exercise is of utmost importance. Understanding your dog is a science and art both and the significance of it cannot be denied. At the same time it is important to understand the power of a large breed like Great Dane, Cane Corso, Bordeux, Rottweilers, German Shepherds, Pitt Bull, Mastiffs etc. These dogs are highly powerful and psychological imbalance can be jeopardize both you and your dogs. Undesirable behaviors are programmed in a breed, if not bred improperly. Rather bad behaviors like over aggression, shyness and biting tendencies are exposed when people who love the breed do not understand the breed properly. This is the biggest mistake that most dog lovers commit.

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Potential Problem With Crating a Puppy

Crate training is important – doubtlessly. However there are a series of problems associated with crating a dog and the most potential of them are whining – an undesirable behavior triggered by frustration and separation anxiety. Crate training is quite difficult process as it may breed behavior problems if correctly introduced and the training process properly employed.

Canines root from wolves who were den dwellers. By instinct, dogs would like a crate as long as he doesn’t consider it as a tool for punishment.

What Makes a Crate Aversive to a Puppy?
  1. Forcibly crating a puppy when he/she is not liking it makes the crate repulsive for the pup

  2. Too small crate make a dog/ puppy feel in captivity. Such unhealthy crates pose health risk due to lack of proper ventilation.

  3. Your dog will considered his crate as dreary and gloomy if it’s lack in comfort factors. Stuff like toys, blankets etc. are important in s crate. Remember it is his private resting place, where he needs comfort and peace of mind. Crate should not be frustrating for him.

  4. Crating a pup for too long span of time is punishment. Remember pups can control their bladder but they don’t know that they are suppose to do it. Occasional release is essential and part of the crate training process.

However, whining is quite normal in the beginning, and it should be ignored for several minutes. Yelling at him will only make things difficult. If whining persists even after several minutes being ignored, you should release him but the act of release MUST be supported with a purpose – for instance, he should be released to eliminate. Prior to releasing him and on releasing him give the command that your dog is associated with going out to eliminate. Make sure that release from the crate should NOT be associated with fun time or play. Repeat the cycle again after a few moment.

Separation anxiety may worsen up if you attempt to use the crate as a solution of the problem. It is quite natural that a puppy that us not already crate trained will resist the crate in the beginning. It is important to slowly introduce the crate to your pup and make him/ her feel that a crate is not a tool that separates him from his/ her pack (you and your family). This is a time consuming process.

Aurhor: William James, representing WoodDogCrate[dot]com

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Saturday, July 22, 2017

Improved Life: Obese Dogs That Lose Weight

Researchers at the University of Liverpool have discovered that the obese dogs that lose weight usually get an improved life quality. compared to the ones that do not. Even before the research had been carried out, people used to know that non-obese dogs, much like their human owners, are blessed with the better quality of life. Studies have shown that almost one-third of the dog population in the UK is overweight, which is a really big reason of concern for the dog owners. Obesity is the root to a series of health issues, including cardiac problem, diabetes and arthritis. 

The scientists carried out a research work with 50 obese dogs, including both genders and pure breeds and mixed breeds at the University of Liverpool in collaboration with the University of Glasgow, Royal Canin and the WALTHAM Center for Pet Nutrition. The owners were asked to complete a questionnaire in order to diagnose the issues related to their dogs health that influenced the life of their dog before the weight loss. In the second phase another questionnaire was asked to be completed by the owners of 30 dogs that were put in a weight loss session and successfully completed the program. The researchers could assess the change in the quality of the life of their dogs. The life quality of the dogs which lose weight in the program was compared with the ones that failed to succeed in the weight loss program.

Good news is several factors influencing the life quality were noticed to have developed. These factors included vitality (strength activeness and energy), emotional balance and pain. the result showed that the life quality, in terms of pains, mental balance and vitality, was improved for the dogs that could succeed in the weight loss program. Obesity is a risk for many dogs, affecting not only their health but also their quality of life. This research indicates that weight loss can play an important role in keeping your dog both healthy and happy, said Dr Alex German, Director of the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic at the University. According to Dr Penelope Morris, from the WALTHAM Center for Pet Nutrition, strategies for combating obesity and keeping dogs fit and healthy include portion control, increased exercise and diets specifically formulated for overweight pets.

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Tuesday, June 6, 2017

Top 10 Dog Myths You Must Read

This post talks about the commonest dog myths that people around us believe in. The deadliest myth is dogs are born biters. Don't believe in such cynophobic and baseless ideas. Apart from this there are other dog myths that most dog owners believe in. Here are the top 10 dog facts that are just myth. Believing these myth may put your dogs to problems.

Suggestion: Understand and Implement.

1. Garlic is good as flea prevention : This is the biggest myth I have ever come across! Researchers have proved that too much of Garlic in your dog food may be dangerous for your dog. Garlic contains natural chemical that affect the Red blood cells that can get ruptured and become incapable of carrying oxygen effectively. However, some dog owners have been giving garlic to their dogs without no issues, but some dogs are more sensitive to garlic toxicity than others. How much is too much for dog is not known yet. Toxicity level varies from dogs to dogs.Garlic has immense benefit to us humans, but is a NO for dogs.
Both garlic and onions contain natural Thiosulfate, which is toxic to canines.

2. Dogs that wag tails are considered happy : This is true, but not always. Even non-friendly dogs wag their tail too. It is important to study other body languages and facial expressions that are cumulatively considered as the indication of a dogs state of mind.

3. Mixed breeds are always sturdy than pure breeds : Not necessarily true.Both pure and mixed breeds can be equally healthy and unhealthy depending on breeding strategies, care and nutrition. Mutts are usually not prone to specific disorders that are typical to certain pure breeds. However, conditions like bloat, dermal problems, heart problems etc. can be seen in both mutts and pure breed dogs.

4. Dogs with warm nose are ill : This is an old school of thought that dogs with warm nose have health issues like fever. This is a myth. The only best way to know if your dog has fever is to check it by thermometer. Normally a healthy dog should have a body temperature of around 102.5 degrees F.

5. Eating grass is an indication of sickness : This is not true. Dogs have descended from the wolves that used to eat all parts of their prey. They also ate the stomach and its content which included grass that the animals ate. This ways grass was the part of the diets of any animals of canidae family. Dogs eating grass is quite normal, if they do not eat it in big volume.

6. Household pet dogs do not require to be vaccinated against rabies : Myth it is always important to vaccinate your dog. This is an indication of responsible ownership. Vaccinating your pet dog against rabies is a precautionary measure for both you and your pet.

7. Female dogs do not cock their legs while urinating : Not always true! Females can lift their legs while urinating and in certain cases they can even exhibit the half sitting-half cocking position while urinating. Check out why do female dogs cock their leg.

8. Dogs are carnivorous animals and should always be kept only on meat : Myth Dogs are actually omnivorous animals like us humans.They need veggies too. Fruits, vegetables, eggs, meat are some of the important ingredients of a perfect holistic dog food. Related Read (though not related to food): Does your dog need vitamins?

9. Dogs love tasty food : Not true. Remember your dogs taste buds are not as strong as yours. Dogs primarily loves food based on smell.

10. Dogs always need high protein diet : Big No! Your dogs diet management should be made on the basis of the amount of calorie it is exhausting each day. Obviously a working dog should be kept on higher protein and carbohydrate as compared to a domestic dog. However, low protein diet also makes low quality food. Right kind of ingredients is essential.

11. Dog understand human language : Not true. You say sit and Rex will sit. This doesn't mean your Rex understands the mean of the word in English. He only knows what to do he hears the particular sound. He acts on the sound.

Here are just a few of thousands of doggy myths. Responsible ownership also demands that you know the correct things related to dogs and not believing the hypes. Stay tuned Up next more talks about dogs.

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Friday, June 2, 2017

Allelomimetic Behavior in Dogs

Allelomimetic behavior in dogs is the imitative behavior found in them and reflects their intelligence. Dogs can exhibit this behavior at any point of time in their life. However, as per the “Genetics and the Social Behavior of the Dog”, a puppy can first exhibit this behavior at around the age of 5 weeks.

More than one adult dogs that stay together – eat, play, sleep together are more prone to exhibit Allelomimetic behavior – one copying the dominating member of the pack. This is a common behavior in dogs is often noticed when a dog joins in barking or howling when his/her partner dog(s) will bark or howl. The other dog who is joining his pack members in barking will just imitate his members without even knowing the reason of barking.

The ability of dogs to induce themselves to act like the other members “in an adaptive manner” in a non-competitive situation brings in the sense of unity in them. Allelomimetic behavior is a type of natural social behavior found in the social animals – most prominent in canines – to imitate or mimic the activities of his/her pack members. This natural behavior is genetically hardwired in puppies – irrespective of breed and is one of the most significant factors and natural process of learning –can also be called “social learning”.

Allelomimetic behavior vs. Social facilitation

Closely resembling, the concept of “social facilitation” and “Allelomimetic behavior” are obviously related, but have subtle differences.

Allelomimetic behavior is a type of natural pack-coordinated behavior based on the natural inclination of any social animal to follow the other members of the pack. Social facilitation, on the other hand, refers to the behavior exhibited in the groups where the presence of a dog results in strengthening a specific behavior. For instance, two dogs staying together may bark more than when they were separate.


If you have a dog with behavioral problem(s), it is suggested not adopting another dog to be kept together. The presence of the problem dog will environmentally influence the new member to develop the problem behavior. Even if you are adopting a dog from the best bloodline (without aggression problem), your new member is likely to develop aggressive behavior if your existing dog has aggression problem.

If you already have a problem dog, and still planning to get a new one, then you must make an arrangement to keep them separate. There is a pretty good chance that the magnitude of the problem behavior will be developed in your new puppy and will be eventually amplified, stimulated by the presence of a dog with behavioral issues.

Canines are doubtlessly an intelligent species, whether a pedigreed dog or a mongrel and irrespective of breed. Allelomimetic behavior is a reflection of its superb intelligence level. Due to its comparatively higher level of intelligence than many other species dogs can even perceive time. Here is how dogs can perceive time, a post that your will surely be interested to read out.

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